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Categorical Outcomes

Groups Purpose Conditions or Assumptions Test Descriptive Measures (also used to calculate CIs)

Single sample

Compare proportion to historical or hypothetical (known) proportion

N > 30

One-sample z-test (exact binomial N < 30)

Proportion, difference from historical proportion

 

Compare proportion to historical or hypothetical (known) proportion

 

Exact binomial test (one-sample)

Proportion, difference from historical proportion

 

Compare proportion(s) to hypothetical (known) proportion(s)

Allows overall comparison of > 2 categories

Pearson's goodness-of-fit Chi-square

Proportion(s) relative to historical proportion(s)

Two independent samples

Compare proportions (absolute difference)

N large (> 30)

Normal approximation to binomial

Difference between two proportions

 

Compare proportions (absolute difference)

 

Exact binomial test (two samples)

Difference between two proportions

Two+ independent samples

Compare proportions or test for association

Expected cell count > 1; most > 5

Chi-square test

Odds ratio, row and column percentages,

 

Compare proportions and test for association

Use for empty cells or small cell counts

Fisher's exact test

Odds ratio, row and column percentages,

 

Compare rates and test for association

Population denominators available (able to calculate valid rates)

Chi-square or Fisher's exact test

Relative risk, row and column percentages

Matched Pairs (2)

Compare proportions or test for association

 

McNemar's test

Difference between two proportions (different std dev than unmatched)

Matched Sets (> 2)

Compare proportions or test for association

 

Cochrane Q test

Difference between pairs of proportions

 

 

 

rev. 29-Aug-2016

 

 

 

Resource Library

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